Duct, duct , goose!
AMH gene- can we turn it off? and reverse nature?
The AMH GENE, is expressed during fetal development:
), also known by various other names
, is a protein
that in humans is encoded by the AMH gene
It is a hormone
that inhibits the development of the Müllerian ducts
) in the male embryo
Although the AMH receptor is expressed in both male and female fetuses, AMH expression has been isolated to male sertoli cells.
Expression of AMH is activated by SOX9 in the male Sertoli cells and causes the irreversible regression of the Müllerian ducts.
Because AMH expression is critical to sex differentiation at a specific time during fetal development, it appears to be tightly regulated by SF1, GATA factors, DAX1 and FSH. Mutations in both the AMH gene and the type II AMH receptor have been shown to cause the persistence of Müllerian derivatives in males that are otherwise normally virilized.
AMH expression also occurs in ovarian granulosa cells of females postpartum, and serves as a molecular biomarker for relative size of the ovarian reserve
In humans, the number of cells in the follicular reserve can be used to predict timing of menopause.
In bovine, AMH can be used for selection of females in multi-ovulatory embryo transfer programs by predicting the number of antral follicles developed to ovulation.
The AMH gene provides instructions for making a protein that is involved in male sex differentiation
. During development of male fetuses, the AMH protein is produced and released (secreted) by cells of the testes. The secreted protein attaches (binds) to its receptor, which is found on the surface of Müllerian duct cells. The Müllerian duct, found in both male and female fetuses
, is the precursor to the female reproductive organs. Binding of the AMH protein to its receptor induces self-destruction (apoptosis) of the Müllerian duct cells. As a result, the Müllerian duct breaks down (regresses) in males. In females, who do not produce the AMH protein during fetal development, the Müllerian duct becomes
the uterus and fallopian tubes.
(mullerian ducts, part of the female reproductive system).
(or Müllerian ducts
) are paired ducts of the embryo
that run down the lateral sides of the urogenital ridge
and terminate at the sinus tubercle
in the primitive urogenital sinus. In the female, they will develop to form the uterine tubes
, and the upper one-third of the vagina
in the male, they are lost. These ducts are made of tissue of mesodermal
In mammals, AMH prevents the development of the Müllerian ducts
into the uterus
and other Müllerian structures.
The effect is ipsilateral, that is each testis suppresses Müllerian development only on its own side.
In humans, this action takes place during the first 8 weeks of gestation. If no hormone is produced from the gonads, the Müllerian ducts automatically develop, while the Wolffian ducts
, which are responsible for male reproductive parts, automatically die.
Amounts of AMH that are measurable in the blood vary by age and sex. AMH works by interacting with specific receptors
on the surfaces of the cells of target tissues (anti-Müllerian hormone receptors
). The best-known and most specific effect, mediated through the AMH type II receptors, includes programmed cell death (apoptosis
) of the target tissue (the fetal Müllerian ducts).
the question that comes to mind is, can one de-activate the amh gene, and cause the body to convert the testes into ovaries? in some cases, there are people with ovo-testes.. part ovaries, part testies, either one or both of the testes can be ovotestes. in some cases, people have one testes, one ovary.. (see intersexed conditions). Though it is plainly states that once the protein is bound to the receptor, the mullerian ducts go away and the wolffian ducts are produced, is there a possible way to swtich them from wolfian ducts to mullerian ducts?
More research to follow.
your body is like Lego's, with the right building blocks and imagination you can build anything!